Because of the large statistical complexity of the traffic in communication networks, connection admission controls (CAC) often use only crude initial estimates of the required bandwidth for variable bit-rate connections. This is one reason why on-line measurements of the existing network traffic have been proposed. The well-known effective bandwidth formulation or recent worst case bounds could be used by CAC. On-line methods of estimating the received quality-of-serve of connections from `feasible statistics' could be used to modify the bandwidth allotment of such connections. Such bandwidth modifications occur at a time- scale between those of the packet level and connection (i.e., CAC) level.
George Kesidis, George Kesidis,
"Bandwidth adjustments using online packet-level measurements", Proc. SPIE 3841, Performance and Control of Network Systems III, (18 August 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.360374; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.360374