21 December 1999 Precision of selected trace elements in groundwater: examples from regional groundwater quality monitoring in the Upper Vistula River Basin (Poland)
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Abstract
Regional Groundwater Quality Monitoring (GQM) in the Upper Vistula River Basin (UVRB) is a pilot scale element of an Integrated Water Management System in SE Poland (about 50,000 km2). The system is currently in the implementation phase. The objectives of the regional GQM network are: (1) to provide data for quality control in regionally important groundwater basins, particularly Major Groundwater Basins (MGWB) in this area; (2) to establish the groundwater vulnerability to large scale diffuse sources of pollution; (3) to perform the prognosis and to identify trends of long time groundwater quality change; (4) to establish the extent of natural and anthropogenic processes impact on groundwater quality. During the sampling of the groundwater monitoring network the Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) program for hydrogeochemical measurements was implemented in parallel. The QA/QC program included the collection (using the same equipment as for normal groundwater samples) and analysis (to the same extent as in the normal samples) of additional special samples. The duplicate samples taken from randomly selected GQM sites were used to assess the precision of hydrogeochemical measurements based upon the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The QA/QC program as applied to the GQM in the Upper Vistula River Basin is illustrated in this paper in the examples of two selected trace elements: fluoride (F) and zinc (Zn). Technical variance ((sigma) tech2) values calculated by means of the classical and robust ANOVA are lower than 20% for the discussed trace elements. This confirms the satisfactory precision of hydrogeochemical measurements.
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Jadwiga Szczepanska, Jadwiga Szczepanska, Ewa Kmiecik, Ewa Kmiecik, Irena Twardowska, Irena Twardowska, } "Precision of selected trace elements in groundwater: examples from regional groundwater quality monitoring in the Upper Vistula River Basin (Poland)", Proc. SPIE 3853, Environmental Monitoring and Remediation Technologies II, (21 December 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.372880; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.372880
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