15 December 1999 Possibility of tailoring ne vs. cLi relations in lithium niobate optical waveguides for sensors applications
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Abstract
We present results of our study of concentration profiles of lithium (cLi) in annealed proton exchanged (APE) waveguiding layers as measured by the neutron depth profiling method. This non-destructive method is based on the 6Li(n,(alpha) )3H reaction induced by thermal neutrons and allowed easy monitoring of cLi profiles in a large number of samples fabricated under various fabrication conditions. Our systematic study revealed that there was no linear relationship which unambiguously attributed (Delta) ne to (Delta) cLi, on contrast with up to now generally accepted opinion. Every particular waveguide has very similar mirror-shaped ne as well as cLi depth profiles, but, generally, all the waveguides can not be characterized with the same ne vs. cLi relationship. The most important fabrication step has appeared to be the post-exchange annealing, during which lithium atoms are transported towards the sample surfaces. The annealing regime pre-destined not only the depth distribution of lithium atoms, but as a consequence of it, also other properties of the waveguiding region. We have formulated ne vs. cLi semi-empirical relationship and listed a set of case-dependent empirical constants for our fabrication system. That allows us to fabricate the APE waveguides with a priori given properties for a wide range of special applications.
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Jarmila Spirkova-Hradilova, Pavla Nekvindova, Jiri Vacik, Jarmila Cervena, Josef Schroefel, "Possibility of tailoring ne vs. cLi relations in lithium niobate optical waveguides for sensors applications", Proc. SPIE 3858, Advanced Materials and Optical Systems for Chemical and Biological Detection, (15 December 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.372917; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.372917
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