30 December 1999 Comparison of at-wavelenth inspection, printability, and simulation of nanometer-scale substrate defects in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL)
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Abstract
We report on the comparison of defect printability experimental results with at-wavelength defect inspection and printability modeling at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. Two sets of EUV masks were fabricated with nm- scale substrate defect topographies patterned using a sacrificial layer and dry-etch process, while the absorber pattern was defined using a subtractive metal process. One set of masks employed a silicon dioxide film to produce the programmed defects, whereas the other set used chromium films. Line-, proximity- and point-defects were patterned and had lateral dimensions in the range of 0.2 micrometer X 0.2 micrometer to 8.0 micrometer X 1.5 micrometer on the EUV reticle, and a topography in the range of 8 nm - 45 nm. Substrate defect topographies were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) before and after deposition of EUV-reflective Mo/Si multilayers. The programmed defect masks were then characterized using an actinic inspection tool. All EUVL printing experiments were performed using Sandia's 10x- reduction EUV Microstepper, which has a projection optics system with a wavefront error less than 1 nm, and a numerical aperture of 0.088. Defect dimensions and exposure conditions were entered into a defect printability model. In this investigation, we compare the simulation predictions with experimental results.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Gregory Frank Cardinale, Gregory Frank Cardinale, John E. M. Goldsmith, John E. M. Goldsmith, Avijit K. Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K. Ray-Chaudhuri, Aaron Fisher, Aaron Fisher, Scott Daniel Hector, Scott Daniel Hector, Pawitter J. S. Mangat, Pawitter J. S. Mangat, Zorian S. Masnyj, Zorian S. Masnyj, David P. Mancini, David P. Mancini, Bill Wilkinson, Bill Wilkinson, Jeffrey Bokor, Jeffrey Bokor, Seongtae Jeong, Seongtae Jeong, Scott C. Burkhart, Scott C. Burkhart, Charles J. Cerjan, Charles J. Cerjan, Christopher C. Walton, Christopher C. Walton, Cindy C. Larson, Cindy C. Larson, Pei-yang Yan, Pei-yang Yan, Guojing Zhang, Guojing Zhang, } "Comparison of at-wavelenth inspection, printability, and simulation of nanometer-scale substrate defects in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL)", Proc. SPIE 3873, 19th Annual Symposium on Photomask Technology, (30 December 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.373339; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.373339
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