30 August 1999 Doping and structural properties for the phosphorous-doped polysilicon layers used for micromechanical applications
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Proceedings Volume 3874, Micromachining and Microfabrication Process Technology V; (1999) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.361246
Event: Symposium on Micromachining and Microfabrication, 1999, Santa Clara, CA, United States
Abstract
Our researches were devoted to the micromechanical elements fabricated by the surface micromachining technology, in order to reduce or to eliminate the internal stress or the stress gradients. We used an analysis based on secondary ion mass spectroscopy and the spreading resistance profiling determinations, correlated with cross-section electron transmission spectroscopy. The stress induced in the polysilicon layers by the technological processes depends on: (i) the conditions of the low pressure chemical vapor deposition process; (ii) the phosphorus doping technique; (iii) the subsequent multi-step annealing processes. In our experiments the LP-CVD conditions were maintained the same, but the condition specified previously as items (ii) was varied by using two different doping techniques: thermal- chemical doping consisting in prediffusion from a POCl3 source in an open furnace tube; ionic implantation with an energy E equals 65KeV and a dose N equals 4.5 X 1015 cm-2. The implantation process was followed by an annealing at 900 degrees C in an oxygen ambient for 30 minutes. The thermal budget was varied after the doping in order to reduce the stress gradient in the polysilicon layers. The results of our analysis allow us to show that: (1) the doping gradients are correlated with the slower phosphorus grains forme by an excess of the oxygen atoms; a concurrent process induced by the silicon self-interstitial injection during the diffusion and oxidation, determines the enhancement of the grain growth and therefore the enhancement of the electrical activation especially near the internal polysilicon interface; (2) the post-doping annealing conditions could be varied in a convenient manner, so that the doping induced stress gradients into the polysilicon layers to be reduced or completely eliminated for suitable micromechanical induced stress gradients into the polysilicon layers to be reduced or completely eliminated for suitable micromechanical applications. The results were used for the process optimization of micromechanical elements. The internal stress was determined by using anew, pull-in voltage method, allowing the comparison of the theory with the experimental data. It was deduced a new form of the equations set useful to extract the mechanical parameters like the internal stress and the Young's module. It was also deduced a simplified approximate formula useful to apply the least square fitting method for the extraction of the mechanical parameters. The results confirms the conclusions of the doping and the structural analysis.
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Florin Gaiseanu, Jaume Esteve, Carles Cane, Alejandro Perez-Rodriguez, Juan Ramon Morante, Christoph Serre, "Doping and structural properties for the phosphorous-doped polysilicon layers used for micromechanical applications", Proc. SPIE 3874, Micromachining and Microfabrication Process Technology V, (30 August 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.361246; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.361246
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