Collisional soft x-ray lasers are brighter by several orders of magnitude than any other available source in the wavelength range comprised between a few tens and a few nanometers. Then, a new line of research has recently appeared besides continuing works aimed to improve optical properties of x-ray lasers and to develop new types of x-ray lasers. It consists in using the actual x-ray lasers as an efficient tool to produce and to study other phenomena in various fields such as atomic physics, plasma physics, or surface science. This paper gives a survey of recent x-ray laser progress and some examples of x-ray laser applications experiments.
Gerard Jamelot, Gerard Jamelot,
"X-ray lasers: an intense radiation source usable in the laboratory", Proc. SPIE 3886, High-Power Lasers in Energy Engineering, (11 January 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.375117; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.375117