The recognition of many enzymes as nanoscale molecular motors has allowed for the potential creation of hybrid organic/inorganic nano-electro-mechanical (NEMS) devices. The long-range goal of this research is the integration of F1-ATPase with NEMS to produce useful nanoscale devices. A thermostable F1-ATPase coding sequence has been isolated, cloned, and engineered for high-level protein expression. Precise positioning, spacing, and orientation of single F1-ATPase molecules were achieved using patterned nickel arrays. An efficient, accurate, and adaptable assay was developed to assess the performance of single F1- ATPase motors, and confirmed a three-step mechanism of (gamma) subunit rotation during ATP hydrolysis. Further evaluation of the bioengineering and biophysical properties of F1-ATPase currently are being conducted, as well as the construction of an F1-ATPase-powered, hybrid NEMS device. The evolution of this technology will permit the creation of novel classes of nanoscale, hybrid devices.