A great research effort has been spent in recent years for the use of guided-wave optoelectronic technologies for signal processing in space applications, because they allow to reduce size, weight, power consumption and system complexity with respect to electronic ones. Based on these motivations, we have conceived, designed and simulated a number of original integrated optical signal processors, such as 2D correlators for imaging reconstruction in SAR applications, both airborne and spaceborne, preprocessors for data classification and identification in satellite applications for remote sensing, beam formers and steerers in active phased array antennas, heterodyne spectrum analyzers, and so on. The substrate materials considered for these circuits are both ferroelectric and III-V semiconductor materials. Original modeling and numerical techniques have been developed to analyze and design the guided-wave components included in the optical architectures. In this paper, the most significant developments of this research activity are reviewed.