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3 March 2000 Electron tunnel ionization: the pulse length and wavelength dependence
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An extension of the Keldysh formulation for electron tunnel ionization has resulted in a description of laser-induced dielectric breakdown with the following features: threshold optical field is predictive based on material properties such as ionization potential, number density, and refractive index. Time to damage is predicted to occur at or slightly beyond the peak laser intensity. Threshold breakdown fields depend on gas pressure as p-1/3. Threshold field varies with pulse duration as t-1/4. The perceived anomalously high strong-field ionization rate of O2 as compared to Xe is explained. Acceptable agreement with measured threshold is seen for a range of materials with 0.000036 < n - 1 < 1.4, and threshold field varies approximately as (Lambda) 0.77 for 0.248 micrometers < 1 < 2.94 micrometers . Specific pulse shapes can be simulated and their effects predicted.
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Jerry Ray Bettis "Electron tunnel ionization: the pulse length and wavelength dependence", Proc. SPIE 3902, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, (3 March 2000);

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