29 March 2000 Photodynamic pathogen inactivation in red cell concentrates with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4
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Proceedings Volume 3909, Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy IX; (2000) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.379877
Event: BiOS 2000 The International Symposium on Biomedical Optics, 2000, San Jose, CA, United States
Abstract
The silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, a photosensitizer activated with red light, has been studied for pathogen inactivation in red blood cell concentrates (RBCC). Pc 4 targets the envelope of pathogenic viruses such as HIV. To protect RBC during the process two main approaches are used: 1) Inclusion of quenches of reactive oxygen species produced during treatment. Tocopherol succinate was found to be most effective for this purpose. 2) Formulation of Pc 4, a lipophilic compound, in liposomes that reduce its binding to RBC but not to viruses. As a light source we used a light emitting diode array emitting at 660-680 nm. An efficient mixing device ensures homogeneous light exposure during treatment of intact RBCC. Treatment of RBCC with 5 (mu) M Pc 4 a d light results in the inactivation of >= 5.5 log10 HIV, >= 6.6 log10 VSV, and >= 5 log10 of PRV and BVDV. Parasites that can be transmitted by blood transfusion are even more sensitive than viruses. Following treatment, RBCC can be stored for 28 days at 4 degrees C with hemolysis below 1 percent. Baboon RBC circulate with an acceptable 24 hour recovery and half-life. Genetic toxicological studies of Pc 4 with or without light exposure are negative. We conclude that a process using Pc 4 and red light can potentially reduce the risk of transmitting pathogens in RBCC used for transfusion.
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Ehud Ben-Hur, Ehud Ben-Hur, Wai-Shun Chan, Wai-Shun Chan, Zachary Yim, Zachary Yim, Maria M. Zuk, Maria M. Zuk, Vinay Dayal, Vinay Dayal, Nathan Roth, Nathan Roth, Eli Heldman, Eli Heldman, A. Lazlo, A. Lazlo, C. R. Valeri, C. R. Valeri, Bernard Horowitz, Bernard Horowitz, } "Photodynamic pathogen inactivation in red cell concentrates with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4", Proc. SPIE 3909, Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy IX, (29 March 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.379877; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.379877
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