Vibrational spectroscopy, when combined with synchrotron radiation-based (SR) microscopy, is a powerful new analytical tool with high spatial resolution for detecting biochemical changes in the individual living cells. In contrast to other microscopy methods that require fixing, drying, staining or labeling, SR-FTIR microscopy probes intact living cells providing a composite view of all of the molecular response and the ability to monitor the response over time in the same cell. Observed spectral changes include all types of lesions induced in that cell as well as cellular responses to external and internal stresses. These spectral changes combined with other analytical tools may provide a fundamental understanding of the key molecular mechanisms induced in response to stresses created by low- doses of chemicals. In this study we used the high spatial - resolution SR-FTIR vibrational spectromicroscopy as a sensitive analytical tool to detect chemical- and radiation- induced changes in individual human cells. Our preliminary spectral measurements indicate that this technique is sensitive enough to detect changes in nucleic acids and proteins of cells treated with environmentally relevant concentrations of dioxin. This technique has the potential to distinguish changes from exogenous or endogenous oxidative processes. Future development of this technique will allow rapid monitoring of cellular processes such as drug metabolism, early detection of disease, bio- compatibility of implant materials, cellular repair mechanisms, self assembly of cellular apparatus, cell differentiation and fetal development.