Using an in vitro wound repair model of the respiratory epithelium, we have previously shown that cell migration is perfectly unidirectional during wound repair. Among the mechanisms potentially involved in the regulation of cell migration, we were particularly interested in the involvement of endogenous electric fields in the repair of wounded respiratory epithelium. Compared to non-injured confluent cultures of airway epithelial cell sin which a constant electric field was observed, we have measured very large variations of the electric field in wounded cultures during the repair process. Immediately after injury, the electric field was zero and progressively increased during wound closure. By using a potentiometric fluorescent probe, we also demonstrated an hyperpolarization of the membrane of migratory cells, as compared with stationary cells located far from wound. In addition, we observed that isolated respiratory epithelial cells, placed in a 10V/cm electric field, acquired a uniform and constant direction of migration in contrast to the random migration of cells not subjected to an electric field. These results suggest that an endogenous electric field could be one of the mechanisms triggering cell migration, thereby leading to the reepithelialization of the respiratory epithelium after injury.