13 April 2000 Erbium doping of lithium niobate by the ion exchange process for high-gain optical amplifiers
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Proceedings Volume 3942, Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices IV; (2000) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.382852
Event: Symposium on Integrated Optoelectronics, 2000, San Jose, CA, United States
Abstract
The erbium-lithium ion exchange is presented as a method for the erbium local doping of lithium niobate crystals. Ion exchange process is performed immersing the LiNbO3 substrates in a liquid melt, containing erbium ions; due to their high mobility, the lithium ions migrate from the crystal to the melt, and are replaced by erbium ions. A systematic analysis of the doping process is performed, and the influence of the process parameters is investigated: exchange time and temperature, crystal cut direction, composition and chemical reactivity of the Er ions liquid source. By structural (X-Ray Diffraction and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry), compositional (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) and spectroscopic techniques (optical spectroscopy and micro-luminescence), the formation of lithium deficient phases and the incorporation of the Er ions into the LiNbO3 matrix is studied.
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Frederico Caccavale, Vyacheslav A. Fedorov, Yuri N. Korkishko, Tamara V. Morozova, Cinzia Sada, Francesco Segato, "Erbium doping of lithium niobate by the ion exchange process for high-gain optical amplifiers", Proc. SPIE 3942, Rare-Earth-Doped Materials and Devices IV, (13 April 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.382852; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.382852
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