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21 December 1999 Review of halftoning techniques
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Digital halftoning remains an active area of research with a plethora of new and enhanced methods. While several fine overviews exist, this purpose of this paper is to review retrospectively the basic classes of techniques. Halftoning algorithms are presented by the nature of the appearance of resulting patterns, including white noise, recursive tessellation, the classical screen, and blue noise. The metric of radially averaged power spectra is reviewed, and special attention is paid to frequency domain characteristics. The paper concludes with a look at the components that comprise a complete image rendering system. In particular when the number of output levels is not restricted to be a power of 2. A very efficient means of multilevel dithering is presented based on scaling order- dither arrays. The case of real-time video rendering is considered where the YUV-to-RGB conversion is incorporated in the dithering system. Example illustrations are included for each of the techniques described.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Robert A. Ulichney "Review of halftoning techniques", Proc. SPIE 3963, Color Imaging: Device-Independent Color, Color Hardcopy, and Graphic Arts V, (21 December 1999);


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