12 April 2000 Three-dimensional high-resolution ultrasonic imaging of the eye
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Very high frequency (50 MHz) ultrasound provides spatial resolution on the order of 30 microns axially by 60 microns laterally. Our aim was to reconstruct the three-dimensional anatomy of the eye in the full detail permitted by this fine- scale transducer resolution. We scanned the eyes of human subjects and anesthetized rabbits in a sequence of parallel planes 50 microns apart. Within each scan plane, vectors were also spaced 50 microns apart. Radio-frequency data were digitized at a rate of 250 MHz or higher. A series of spectrum analysis and segmentation algorithms was applied to data acquired in each plane; the outputs of these procedures were used to produce color-coded 3-D representations of the sclera, iris and ciliary processes to enhance 3-D volume rendered presentation. We visualized the radial pattern of individual ciliary processes in humans and rabbits and the geodetic web of supporting connections between the ciliary processes and iris that exist only in the rabbit. By acquiring data such that adjacent vectors and planes are separated by less than the transducer's lateral resolution, we were able to visualize structures, such as the ciliary web, that had not been seen before in-vivo. Our techniques offer the possibility of high- precision imaging and measurement of anterior segment structures. This would be relevant in monitoring of glaucoma, tumors, foreign bodies and other clinical conditions.
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Ronald H. Silverman, Ronald H. Silverman, Frederick L. Lizzi, Frederick L. Lizzi, Andrew Kalisz, Andrew Kalisz, D. Jackson Coleman, D. Jackson Coleman, "Three-dimensional high-resolution ultrasonic imaging of the eye", Proc. SPIE 3982, Medical Imaging 2000: Ultrasonic Imaging and Signal Processing, (12 April 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.382254; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.382254

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