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19 June 2000 Electromechanical modeling of ionic polymer conductive composite (IPCC) artificial muscles
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Ionic polymers or solid polyelectrolytes in functionally- graded composite form with a conductive phase such as a metal, conductive polymer or graphite, when swollen and suitably plated by conducting electrodes, display a spontaneous curvature increasing with the applied electric field E. There also exists an inverse effect, where an imposed deformation induces an electric field (in open circuit conditions) in such ionic polymer conductive composites (IPCC). Presented here is a description of these effects in the linear regime, based on linear irreversible thermodynamics, with two driving forces, namely the electric field E and a water pressure gradient (Delta) p and two fluxes, namely the electric current density J and water current density Q. Presented are also some qualitative estimates of the four Onsager coefficients which play important roles in the proposed model.
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Mohsen Shahinpoor "Electromechanical modeling of ionic polymer conductive composite (IPCC) artificial muscles", Proc. SPIE 3984, Smart Structures and Materials 2000: Mathematics and Control in Smart Structures, (19 June 2000);

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