7 June 2000 Electrochemical characterization and control of triple-layer muscles
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The electrochemical characterization of triple-layers formed by a EPA (Electroactive Polymer)/double-sided tape/EPA, like artificial muscles is described. Those muscles were characterized working under constant potential or under constant current. Due to the electrochemical nature of the electrochemomechanical property, muscles working under constant current produce constant movements, consuming increasing energies at decreasing temperatures, decreasing concentrations of electrolytes or trailing increasing masses. Muscles working at constant potential response with a faster movement if the temperature or the concentration of the electrolyte increase, or if the trailed weight decreases. Specific charges and specific energies were determined for every experimental condition.
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Toribio Fernandez Otero, Toribio Fernandez Otero, Maria Teresa Cortes, Maria Teresa Cortes, } "Electrochemical characterization and control of triple-layer muscles", Proc. SPIE 3987, Smart Structures and Materials 2000: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD), (7 June 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.387784; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.387784

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