7 June 2000 Electrotransport and deformation model of ion exchange membrane-based actuators
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A continuum mechanical model of Nafion based metal-polymer actuators is presented. Global integral postulates are written for the conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and charge, Gauss' law, and the second law of thermodynamics. The global equations are then localized in the volume and on the material surfaces bounding the polymer. A finite element formulation is used to predict the evolution of the counter ion concentration, 'free' water content, electric potential, and stress/strain during actuation. The model includes stress relaxation phenomena due to water flow generated governed by Darcy's law.
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Eniko T. Enikov, Eniko T. Enikov, Bradley J. Nelson, Bradley J. Nelson, "Electrotransport and deformation model of ion exchange membrane-based actuators", Proc. SPIE 3987, Smart Structures and Materials 2000: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD), (7 June 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.387771; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.387771

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