21 July 2000 Film stress changes during anodic bonding of NGL masks
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Lithography below sub-130 nm requires minimization of pattern distortions due to mask fabrication. It is essential to understand the impact of each step of the entire process flow, since the fabrication (and the resulting bow of the mask as well as the stress of the layers) influences subsequent steps. This paper presents experimental and finite element results from a study of the deposition, etching, and bonding effects on the stress of the mask film stack and, in particular, looks at stress variations due to bonding. Stress measurements were conducted on five X-ray lithographic test masks. The results of this study provide insight into general deposition, etching, and bonding procedures being considered by other NGL technologies.
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Eric P. Cotte, Eric P. Cotte, Michael P. Schlax, Michael P. Schlax, Roxann L. Engelstad, Roxann L. Engelstad, Edward G. Lovell, Edward G. Lovell, Cameron J. Brooks, Cameron J. Brooks, "Film stress changes during anodic bonding of NGL masks", Proc. SPIE 3997, Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, (21 July 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.390089; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.390089

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