21 July 2000 Power scaling of a Z-pinch extreme ultraviolet source
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A xenon Z-pinch generating extreme ultraviolet radiation at the Mo-Si mirror wavelength of 13.5 nm has been scaled to emit increased power at a higher repetition frequency. The 25 mm long by 3.0 mm (FWHM) diameter pinch produces 1.5 W of EUV radiation (2.5% bandwidth) into an axial 0.1 sr solid angle when operated at 100 Hz (100 J stored). The measured average pinch liner heat load at 100 Hz is 37 W cm-2, corresponding to an average internal wall temperature of 80 degrees Celsius. Electrode and liner erosion is very slight after more than 106 pulses at 100 Hz. Source cleanliness was demonstrated via a two-mirror simulation of a condenser in which throughput was unchanged during a 106 pulse run at 50 Hz. Amplitude stability was 12% (3(sigma) ) and positional stability was less than 4% of source diameter (1(sigma) ). 13.5 nm output scaled linearly with repetition frequency to more than 150 Hz (58 J stored). The cost of ownership for this source is estimated to be no greater than for an excimer laser illuminator. A plan is outlined for continued development to > 1 kHz and usable power of 16 W.
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Malcolm W. McGeoch, "Power scaling of a Z-pinch extreme ultraviolet source", Proc. SPIE 3997, Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, (21 July 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.390043; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.390043

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