21 July 2000 Vacuum spark for soft x-rays and the spherical pinch for EUV as point sources for microlithography
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The VSX is essentially a miniature discharge capable of emitting soft X-ray radiation. Because the radiation is emitted in small dose in each spark, it is necessary to repeat the phenomenon at high frequency in order to achieve the industrial throughput requirement. Relying on a X-ray collimator (either nested cones or capillary), the point radiation source can deliver a high quality beam suitable for microlithography. Current study shows that the X-ray energy per pulse can be 113 (mu) J or higher with a pulse width (FWHM) of less than 50 ns. A 30 kHz operation in burst mode has been realized. The optimum conditions of the VSX operation have been carefully studied and are reported here. The lifetime can be as high as tens of hours in the low frequency operation or 100 million shots and this figure can be greatly improved. Pinhole camera images show that the source size is less than 1 mm. The throughput of exposing 1 field per hour or more is readily achievable with current parameters and can be greatly improved with the higher operating frequency. The Spherical Pinch is a modified (theta) -pinch with high efficiency in the EUV region of spectrum. Working with different gases, the SPX machine (up to 33 kJ input energy) is optimized for EUV emission and can be fitted in an advanced EUV lithography system. The point source requirements are indeed met by the SPX for such system.
© (2000) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Frank F. Wu, Frank F. Wu, Wen-Chieh Tang, Wen-Chieh Tang, Kazimierz W. Wirpszo, Kazimierz W. Wirpszo, Xiaoming Guo, Xiaoming Guo, Meisheng Xu, Meisheng Xu, Oleg G. Semyonov, Oleg G. Semyonov, C. Huang, C. Huang, Lev Klibanov, Lev Klibanov, Emilio Panarella, Emilio Panarella, } "Vacuum spark for soft x-rays and the spherical pinch for EUV as point sources for microlithography", Proc. SPIE 3997, Emerging Lithographic Technologies IV, (21 July 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.390113; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.390113


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