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2 June 2000 Characterization and modeling of out-diffusion of cesium, manganese, and zinc impurities from deep-ultraviolet photoresist
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The novel radioactive tracer technique was applied to investigate the migration of cesium, manganese and zinc impurities from deep ultraviolet photoresist into underlying substrate. Two important process parameters, viz., baking temperatures and substrate types (i.e., bare silicon, polysilicon, silicon oxide and silicon nitride), were evaluated. Our results indicated that the migration ratios were all below 6%, irrespective of baking temperatures and substrate types. The substrate types did not appear to strongly affect the metallic impurity out-diffusion from deep ultraviolet photoresist. However, solvent and/or water evaporation due to temperature change was found to have a significant effect on metal migration. The net driving force of impurity changes with temperature and the impurity diffusion can be classified into four types. Based on the proposed types, the obtained migration ratios can be realized. A new model, together with a new parameter, was proposed to describe the out-diffusion behavior of impurities from deep ultraviolet photoresist. The diffusion profile of photoresist was depicted based on diffusion equations and the migration ratios. This model could explain the migration ratios of metallic impurities in photoresist layers under various baking conditions.
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Fu-Hsiang Ko, Mei-Ya Wang, Tien-Ko Wang, ChinCheng Yang, Tiao-Yuan Huang, and ChengSan Wu "Characterization and modeling of out-diffusion of cesium, manganese, and zinc impurities from deep-ultraviolet photoresist", Proc. SPIE 3998, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XIV, (2 June 2000);

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