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23 June 2000 Modeling chemically amplified resists for 193-nm lithography
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Post exposure bake (PEB) models in the STORM program have been extended to study pattern formation in 193 nm chemically amplified resists. Applications to resists formulated with cycloolefin-maleic anhydride copolymers, cholate based dissolution inhibitor, nonaflate photoacid generator and base quencher are presented. The PEB modeling is based on the chemical and physical mechanisms including the thermally induced deprotection reaction, acid loss due to base neutralization and protected-sites-enhanced acid diffusion. Simplifying assumptions are made to derive analytical expressions for PEB. The model parameters are extracted from the following experiments. UV-visible spectroscopy is used to extract the resist absorbance parameters. The generation of acid is monitored using the method of 'base additions.' The extent of deprotection that occurs during the bake is determined by monitoring the characteristic FTIR absorbance band around 1170 cm-1 over a range of exposure doses and bake temperatures. Diffusion parameters are extracted from line end shortening (LES) measurements. These parameters are optimized using the Method of Feasible Directions algorithm. Application results show good agreement with experimental data for different LES features.
© (2000) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Ebo H. Croffie, Mosong Cheng, Andrew R. Neureuther, Francis M. Houlihan, Raymond A. Cirelli, James R. Sweeney, Gary Dabbagh, Pat G. Watson, Omkaram Nalamasu, Ilya L. Rushkin, Ognian N. Dimov, and Allen H. Gabor "Modeling chemically amplified resists for 193-nm lithography", Proc. SPIE 3999, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVII, (23 June 2000);

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