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5 July 2000 Long-term testing of optical components for 157-nm lithography
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Photolithography utilizing 157-nm excimer lasers is a leading candidate technology for the post-193-nm generation. A key element required for successful insertion of this technology is the near-term performance and long-term reliability of the components of the optical train, including transparent bulk materials for lenses, optical coatings, photomask substrates, and pellicles. For instance, after 100 billion pulses at an incident fluence of 0.5 mJ/cm2/pulse optical materials, of which the primary candidate is calcium fluoride, should have an absorption coefficient of less than 0.002 cm-1, and antireflective layers should enable transmission of 98.5 percent for a two-sided coated substrate. Modified fused silica has emerged as a viable option as a transparent photomask substrate, and several approaches are being explored for transmissive membranes to be used as pellicles.
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Vladimir Liberman, Mordechai Rothschild, Jan H. C. Sedlacek, Ray S. Uttaro, Allen Keith Bates, and Kevin J. Orvek "Long-term testing of optical components for 157-nm lithography", Proc. SPIE 4000, Optical Microlithography XIII, (5 July 2000);

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