17 July 2000 VLWIR HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors performance
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Abstract
Very Long Wavelength InfraRed (VLWIR; (lambda) c approximately equals 15 to 17 micrometer at 78 K) photovoltaic detector operating in the 78 K range are needed for remote sensing applications. This temperature range permits the use of passive radiators in spacecraft to cool the detectors. VLWIR ((lambda) c approximately equals 15 to 17 micrometer at 78 K) photovoltaic detectors in a range of sizes (8 micrometer diameter to 1000 micrometer diameter) have been fabricated and their performance measured as a function of temperature. Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) was used to grow n-type VLWIR Hg1-xCdxTe on lattice matched CdZnTe. Arsenic was implanted and the wafer was annealed to provide the p-type regions. All the material was grown with wider bandgap cap layers and consequently the detector architecture is the Double Layer Planar Heterostructure (DLPH) architecture. Id - Vd versus temperature curves for 8 and 1000 micrometer diameter, (lambda) c equals 17 micrometer at 78 K detectors indicate that the 8 micrometer diameter detector is diffusion limited for temperatures greater than 63 K even at a -200 mV bias. There is no appreciable tunneling at T equals 50 K and at -200 mV applied bias. At T equals 40 K tunneling commences at a bias approximately equals -80 mV. Below T equals 30 K, the diode is tunneling limited. The 1000 micrometer diameter detector is diffusion limited at bias values less than -50 mV at 78 K. At zero bias, the detector impedance is comparable to the series/contact resistance. Interfacing with the low (comparable to the contact and series resistance) junction impedance detector is not feasible. Therefore a custom pre- amplifier was designed to interface with the large VLWIR detectors in reverse bias. The detector is dominated by tunneling currents at temperatures less than 78 K. The 1000 micrometer diameter, (lambda) c approximately equals 17 micrometer at 78 K detectors have dark currents approximately equals 160 (mu) A at a -100 mV bias and at 78 K. Detector non-AR coated quantum efficiency > 60% was measured at -100 mV bias in these large detectors and the response was constant across the (lambda) equals 7 micrometer to 15 micrometer spectral band. With AR- coating the quantum efficiency will be > 70%. Response was measured and non-linearity < 0.15% was calculated for the 1000 micrometer detectors. The flux values were in the 1017 ph/cm2/sec range and were changed by varying the blackbody temperature. In addition, a linear response was measured while varying the spot size incident on the 1000 micrometer detectors. This excellent response uniformity measured as a function of spot size implies that, low frequency spatial response variations are absent, for the 1000 micrometer detectors.
© (2000) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Arvind I. D'Souza, Arvind I. D'Souza, Larry C. Dawson, Larry C. Dawson, Craig O. Staller, Craig O. Staller, John P. Reekstin, John P. Reekstin, Priyalal S. Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S. Wijewarnasuriya, Roger E. DeWames, Roger E. DeWames, William V. McLevige, William V. McLevige, Jose M. Arias, Jose M. Arias, Dennis E. Edwall, Dennis E. Edwall, Gernot Hildebrandt, Gernot Hildebrandt, } "VLWIR HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors performance", Proc. SPIE 4028, Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays VI, (17 July 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.391747; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.391747
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