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28 July 2000 Thermal sensitivity of biowarfare simulants
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In developing high temperature incendiary weapons, the temperature and duration required to inactivate spores is needed information. Three common biowarfare simulants, Bacillus anthracis var Sterne, Bacillus thuringiensis var Kurstaki and Bacillus globigii var niger have been studied for their susceptibility to heat. The spores of all three simulants lose viability when exposed to temperatures between 250 and 300 degree(s)C for 1 second. Bacillus globigii is perhaps the most heat resistant of the three simulants studied, with Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis having similar susceptibilities to heat. Low temperature experiments requiring longer durations were also conducted; over a period of days at 90 degree(s)C. Bacillus anthracis spores can be inactivated. Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis were also performed. An important implication for any high temperature incendiary is the amount of heat or energy the spores absorb between ambient temperatures and 100 degree(s)C. A phase transition occurs centered at 184 degree(s)C for Bacillus thuringiensis. This is also the beginning of a massive weight loss from the spores, as well as a point at which the kinetics of the kill seem to change.
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Eric Holwitt, Johnathan L. Kiel, John L. Alls, Pedro J. Morales, and Homer Gifford "Thermal sensitivity of biowarfare simulants", Proc. SPIE 4036, Chemical and Biological Sensing, (28 July 2000);

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