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22 August 2000 Laboratory data and model comparisons of the transport of chemical signatures from buried land mines/UXO
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Sensing the chemical signature emitted from the main charge explosives from buried landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) is being considered for field applications with advanced sensors of increased sensitivity and specificity. The chemical signature, however, may undergo many interactions with the soil system, altering the signal strength at the ground surface by many orders of magnitude. The chemidynamic processes are fairly well understood from many years of agricultural and industrial pollution soil physics research. Due to the unique aspects of the surface soil environment, computational simulation is being used to examen the breadth of conditions that impact chemical signature transport, from the buried location to a ground surface release. To provide confidence in the information provided by simulation modeling, laboratory experiments have been conducted to provide validation of the model under well-constrained laboratory testing conditions. A soil column was constructed with soil moisture monitoring ports, a bottom porous plate to regulate the soil moisture content, and a top plenum to collect the surface flux of explosive chemicals. The humidity of the air flowing through the plenum was set at about 50 percent RH to generate an upward flux of soil moisture. A regulated flux of aqueous phase 2,4-DNT was injected into the soil at about ten percent of the upward water flux. Chemical flux was measured by sampling with solid phase microextraction devices and analysis by gas chromatography/electron capture detection. Data was compared to model results from the T2TNT code, specifically developed to evaluate the buried landmine chemical transport issues. Data and model results compare exceptionally well providing additional confidence in the simulation tool.
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James M. Phelan, Matthew Gozdor, Stephen W. Webb, and Mark Cal "Laboratory data and model comparisons of the transport of chemical signatures from buried land mines/UXO", Proc. SPIE 4038, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets V, (22 August 2000);

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