22 August 2000 Measurements and modeling of explosive vapor diffusion in snow
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Abstract
The detection of buried mines is important to both for humanitarian and military strategic de-mining both at home and abroad, and recent efforts in chemical detection show promise for definitive identification of buried miens. The impact of weather has a large effect on the fate and transport of the explosives vapor that these systems sense. In many areas of military conflict, and at Army military training grounds in cold regions, winter weather affects military operations for many months of the year. In cold regions, the presence of freezing ground or a snow cover may provide increased temporary storage of the explosive, potentially leading to opportunities for more optimal sensing conditions later. This paper discusses the result of a controlled laboratory experiment to investigate explosives diffusion through snow, quantitative microscopy measurements of snow microstructure including specific surface, and verifications of our transport model using this data. In experiments measuring 1,3-DNB, 2,4-DNT and 2,4,6-TNT we determined an effective diffusion coefficient of 1.5 X 10-6 cm2/s from measurements through isothermal sieved snow with equivalent sphere radius of 0.11 mm. Adsorption is a major factor in diffusive transport of these explosives through snow. The data was used to verify our finite element mole of explosives transport. Measurements and model results show close agreement.
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Mary R. Albert, James H. Cragin, Daniel C. Leggett, "Measurements and modeling of explosive vapor diffusion in snow", Proc. SPIE 4038, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets V, (22 August 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.396275; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.396275
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