22 August 2000 Toward a laser-based noncontact acoustic land mine imager
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Acoustic sensing shows promise for the detection of buried landmines. One of us has previously demonstrated successful imaging of mine simulants buried at depths from the surface to 15 centimeters, using speakers and a laser vibrometer, which collects spectral data at low frequencies. The strength of the method is in the contrast between the porous soil and the nonporous mine, while the limitations are the strong attenuation of the probing acoustic wave and coupling of the sound directly into the vibrometer.
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Charles A. DiMarzio, Wen Li, Larry J. Berg, and James M. Sabatier "Toward a laser-based noncontact acoustic land mine imager", Proc. SPIE 4038, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets V, (22 August 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.396303; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.396303

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