11 July 2000 Estimation of shallow-energy-level location in BaTiO3
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Abstract
Photorefractive crystals have emerged as ideal candidates for storing large amounts of optical image information. According to the Band Transport model, photorefraction results from absorption at various impurity levels inside the crystal. Thus an understanding of impurity levels within a photorefractive crystal will facilitate further understanding of photorefraction. The Band Transport model assumes that the electrons in the conduction band are excited via optical transitions. There are shallow energy levels, however, which may also contribute conducting electrons via thermal excitation. We report here a method for estimating the location of shallow energy levels in a barium titanate crystal (dopes with 20ppm cobalt) by using two-wave mixing measurements at low temperatures. This method provides a lower limit of the location of the shallow energy level which is about 0.1 eV below the conduction in this crystal.
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Shang-Yeh Chiang, Ming-Tsung Chen, Yeong-Jenq Huang, Shoang C. Donn, Jynq-Yang Chang, "Estimation of shallow-energy-level location in BaTiO3", Proc. SPIE 4078, Optoelectronic Materials and Devices II, (11 July 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.392122; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.392122
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