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25 October 2000 Design of binary phase-only diffractive optical elements for laser beam shaping
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This contribution concentrates on a study and comparison of non- iterative design methods (error diffusion methods) based on a hardclip approach with iterative methods, namely iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA), in designing binary phase-only diffractive optical elements (BPDOEs) for laser beam shaping. Two error diffusion methods as a non-iterative methods were considered, implemented and used for designing BPDOEs: the classical algorithm of error diffusion (ED) and the signal window minimum average error algorithm (SWMAE). Also, different schemes and approaches of IFTA algorithm were analyzed, implemented, and compared. The methods together with the simple hardclip method were analyzed for both diffusive and fan-out type objects: the signal-to-noise ratio and the diffraction efficiency dependencies on both the spatial-bandwidth product and on the signal-window position were obtained, enabling to determine the optimum design parameters and constraints within each method. As for the IFTA method, the role and a proper shape of the scale factor were analyzed, and a new way of characterization of the algorithm convergence was introduced, using the spectrum representation. The practical realization using e-beam lithography technology shows a good qualitative agreement with designed types of elements.
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Marek Skeren, Ivan Richter, and Pavel Fiala "Design of binary phase-only diffractive optical elements for laser beam shaping", Proc. SPIE 4095, Laser Beam Shaping, (25 October 2000);

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