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2 November 2000 Ellipsometry: a sophisticated tool for optical metrology
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Ellipsometry is a sensitive optical technique for non- invasive in-situ (in any optically transparent environment) and ex-situ (in air) characterization of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films which is based on measurement of the polarization of light before and after reflection from a given sample at different angles of incidence and as a function of wavelength. The spectral range of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) -typically 1-6eV of photon energy- has been extended to the mid and far IR on one side and to the VUV, EUV, and X-ray region on the other. Significant advances and sophistication of available instrumentation and supportive software have resulted in extensive use of ellipsometry in biology, chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, and industrial applications over the past two decades. Fast ellipsometers are used for real- time on-line monitoring and feedback process control of various thin films and for the fabrication of pre-engineered multilayer and graded-composition structures. As a metrology tool, ellipsometry yields information on dielectric functions of layered optically isotropic or anisotropic materials, film thicknesses, interface roughnesses, and compositions (void and alloy fractions) and depth profiles of inhomogeneous thin films.
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Rasheed M. A. Azzam "Ellipsometry: a sophisticated tool for optical metrology", Proc. SPIE 4099, Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, (2 November 2000);


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