2 February 2001 Energy level alignment in metal/organic interfaces: Ca/Alq3 and Al/Alq3
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The importance of interfacial properties in organic light emitting devices (OLED) is well recognized. Using mainly surface/interface analytical techniques in a well controlled ultra high vacuum (UHV) environment, we have studied the formation of interfaces that occurs in OLEDs using X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). The results have shown that the interface energy level alignment is intimately related to the charge injection and therefore to the device characteristics and performance. Relationship to interface charge transfer, chemical reaction, and dipole layer formation will also be discussed.
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Li Yan, Li Yan, M. Gary Mason, M. Gary Mason, Ching W. Tang, Ching W. Tang, Yongli Gao, Yongli Gao, } "Energy level alignment in metal/organic interfaces: Ca/Alq3 and Al/Alq3", Proc. SPIE 4105, Organic Light-Emitting Materials and Devices IV, (2 February 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.416879; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.416879

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