Advanced technologies, such as coring, geophysical methods, and remote sensing, are successfully applied to subsurface prospecting. In particular, modern electro-optical sensors are sturdy enough to meet the requirements of an archaeological survey. In the framework of the project ARCHEO, funded by the Italian Ministry for Universities and Scientific and Technological Research, we have developed GEOSCOPE, an innovative instrument equipped with miniaturized electro-optical sensors for archaeological prospecting. GEOSCOPE consists of a coring machine and a probe: the coring machine bores the soil while recording the drilling parameters, the probe performs visual inspections and data acquisitions in the hole. A user-friendly computer interface allows the archaeologist to acquire, record, and display measurements and images.