15 December 2000 Encountering bird alarms in full-stare IRSTs
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Birds are a potential source of frequent false alarms in Infrared Search and Track (IRST) systems. One reason is that the signals, generated by birds at short ranges (1-2 km) in IR sensors may be of the same magnitude as the signals generated by real targets (missiles) at long ranges (10-20 km). Another reason is that new generations of IRSTs have more sensitivity which brings more birds within the detection range. Furthermore military operations tend to be held more and more in coastal zones, where the frequency of occurrence of birds is greater than in the open ocean. Finally, the variety in type of birds and their flight characteristics and signature is larger. In the paper attention is spent on the IR signatures of birds in various backgrounds, including rapid variations in signature due to wing motions. Basically, these fluctuations and the flight pattern of a bird provide opportunities to encounter bird alarms in next generation IRSTs, using multiple Focal Plan Array cameras with high frame rates. One has to take into account in this process the difference between signal variations due to wing motions and scintillation for long range targets above the horizon.
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Arie N. de Jong, Arie N. de Jong, Hans Winkel, Hans Winkel, Rob A. W. Kemp, Rob A. W. Kemp, } "Encountering bird alarms in full-stare IRSTs", Proc. SPIE 4130, Infrared Technology and Applications XXVI, (15 December 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.409914; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.409914

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