28 November 2000 New alloys for electroformed replicated x-ray optics
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Abstract
The process of electroforming nickel x-ray mirror shells from superpolished mandrels has been widely used. The recently launched XMM mission by the European Space Agency (ESA) is an excellent example, containing 174 such mirror shells of diameters ranging from 0.3 - 0.7 meters and with a thickness range of 0.47 - 1.07 mm. To continue to utilize this technique for the next generation of x-ray observatories, where larger collecting areas will be required within the constraints of tight weight budgets, demands that new alloys be developed that can withstand the large stresses imposed on very thin shells by the replication, handling and launch processes. Towards this end, we began a development program in late 1997 to produce a high-strength alloy suitable for electroforming very thin high-resolution x-ray optics for the proposed Constellation-X project. Requirements for this task are quite severe; not only must the electroformed deposit be very strong, it must also have very low residual stresses to prevent serious figure distortions in large thin-walled shells. Further, the processing must be done reasonably near room temperature, as large temperature changes will modify the figure of the mandrel. Also the environment must not be corrosive or otherwise damaging to the mandrel during the processing. The results of the development program are presented, showing the evolution of our plating processes and materials through to the present 'glassy' nickel alloy that satisfies the above requirements.
© (2000) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Darell E. Engelhaupt, Darell E. Engelhaupt, Brian D. Ramsey, Brian D. Ramsey, Stephen L. O'Dell, Stephen L. O'Dell, William D. Jones, William D. Jones, J. Kevin Russell, J. Kevin Russell, } "New alloys for electroformed replicated x-ray optics", Proc. SPIE 4138, X-Ray Optics, Instruments, and Missions IV, (28 November 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.407555; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.407555
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