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5 January 2001 Hard x-ray multilayers: a study of different material systems
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Multilayer structures with depth-graded spacing can show a high reflectivity in a broad energy passband for hard X-rays if the interface roughness/diffuseness is controlled and minimized. We present a study of several multilayer systems deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on <111> silicon wafers and superpolished fused silica substrates. The material combinations discussed are W/Si, WSi2/Si, W/C, Pt/C, Ni/C, Ni/B4C, and Mo/Si. The deposition method used was DC magnetron sputtering at low argon pressures (1.5 to 5 mT). The characterization methods used were: Atomic Force Microscopy in tapping mode, stylus profilometry, Rutherford backscattering, cross sectional TEM, and specular X-ray reflectivity (XRR) scans at 8.05 keV. Different process parameters were varied in order to optimize the interface roughness/diffuseness (sigma) that was measured by XRR scans.
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Adrian Ivan, Ricardo J. Bruni, Kyung Wha Byun, Paul Gorenstein, and Suzanne E. Romaine "Hard x-ray multilayers: a study of different material systems", Proc. SPIE 4145, Advances in X-Ray Optics, (5 January 2001);

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