5 January 2001 X-ray deflector: theory, design, and applications
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Multilayer depth-graded structures make possible creating the x-ray mirrors with the reflection angular width of about 0.2 degrees - 0.5 degrees at the wavelength of 1.54 angstrom. Special numerical optimization techniques, such as needle variations, Powell method, and some other were used to calculate the multilayer structures with desired reflection curves. It was found that for CuK radiation and the angular interval 0.5 - 0.9 degrees W-C an W-B4C structures can have the mean reflectivity about 30% with the relative deviation from uniformity better than 0.7%. Such multilayer mirrors were successfully manufactured on quartz substrates with roughness level of about 6 angstrom using magnetron sputtering technology. On this basis the first computer-driven x-ray deflector was designed and tested. For the mirror angular interval of 0.4 degree the output beam deflection interval is equal to 0.8 degree, that is enough for a variety of applications. The laboratory experiments with the deflector included the x-ray raster imaging with the resolution of about 20 micrometers, and automatic beam adjustment and re-aiming. Another possible applications are the x-ray microscopy, compensation for orbital motion of space x-ray telescopes, space x-ray communication.
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Vladimir V. Protopopov, "X-ray deflector: theory, design, and applications", Proc. SPIE 4145, Advances in X-Ray Optics, (5 January 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.411646; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.411646

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