A new fast effective approach for impulsive noise suppression in digitized aerophotographic images is presented in this paper. The filtering scheme consists of the global histogram analysis part to detect impulse corrupted pixels and the part of local adaptive interpolation of the intensity function of identified pixels by spatial modified order statistic value computed around these pixels. The proposed technique is characterized by its simplicity and better performing of the impulsive noise suppression while preserving fine details and edges of the image, especially where there is a high probability of the impulse occurrence. The advantages of developed approach in comparison with known adaptive identification filters are demonstrated by simulation results.
In this work properties of various parameters of sigma- function mathematically are described, because of which the influence of these parameters on the speed of convergence of the back-propagation learning algorithm for feedforward neural networks is shown. Because of it, installing optimum conditions and entering some restrictions on parameters the new modified algorithm is received which converges to the necessary solution much faster.
Both the methodology and results of experimental research performed for the laser path images normalization by means of compact models description that describe image classes are considered in this paper. The problems of preliminary image processing based on the method of generalized Q- transformation are being solved. The image segmentation with the formation of connectivity matrices and the formal description of the resulting components are taken into consideration as well. The calculating algorithms based on the methodology of dichotomous balance of the images with the analysis of the shape and definition of coordinates being prepared have been used for the classification of laser path images. The research paper submitted consists of two parts. The first part deals with the change of images of a laser path, the second one deals with their coordinate definition.
The aim of this work is an estimation of eye-conjunctiva. Dynamic observation can be made in the process of pathological change diagnosis and treatment with using elaborated device. The work generalizes the experience of practical application and presents diagnostic and additional user possibilities of the digital complex for processing of eye-conjunctiva microcirculation. The digital system instantaneously provides an image, prints out the data of study, cuts expenses on analysis of eye-conjunctiva microcirculation and is several times cheaper than foreign analogues while matching their quality.
On the basis of coupled waves theory is received system of differential equations of second order, which describe propagation of electromagnetic wave in the periodic medium. Using these equations is conducted analysis of propagation of optical waves in not absorbing ambience, refraction coefficient of which along certain direction is described by quasiperiodic function.
The algorithm of estimation in the light signal parameters with a preset relative mean-square error under conditions of instability of the sounding radiation source and the presence of pronounced interference background of the optical transmission channel that provide the optimal time of signal storage (a priori information about the intensity value being absent) have been synthesized.
At last time the many scientists working with systems of technical sight. And all of them have large problem. It is the making of unifical objects recognition systems. The methods of recognizing by signs are more attractive for deciding this problem. We must note that all known methods let pick out only one of all possible signs [1, 2]. But picking out several object's signs quantity will be best for its recognition. It is necessary to decide the input information treatment problem for receiving desirable results of engeneering activity. The image identify problem is most interesting part of main treatment problem. That is mean that the aim of optimal technical sight system working out is put. This system will not base at the standard logic-mathematical algorithms. We noted from this that optimal technical sight systems creation connected with new treatment and information analysis methods. These methods base at the physics-technological basis of dates treatment and transformation. We have mark the next, that information perception has been maximal approach to natural parallel perception and treatment in such systems. The information perception and treatment way need to making arrangements like arrangements eyeprocessor type . The apparatus like that has made input and dates preliminary treatment and this information analysis and object recognition. The information treatment consists of the four parts in those arrangements. The first is preliminary treatment by KVP-transformation method . The second is forming unobviously expressed signs systems. The next is making unit finish function. She take into account weight marks of quality and quantity object characteristics. And last is making knowledge underground and finish recognizing. Each stage contains large quality difficult tasks. They have been decide by principle new ways. And that is why the authors proposed to use the new mathematical operations. Those operations will help describe all information treatment.
The paper describes the phase-shifting method for measuring 2D birefringence distributions with return-path polarimeter scheme. Eight or sixteen images in polarized light are processed for determining of specimen's retardance and azimuth distributions. The principal formulas that describe the mathematical processing are presented. The method allows us to find the image of specimen's birefringence with nonuniform distribution of fast axis azimuth and retardance. The method gives the exact solution for any retardance value. Approximation equations for determining of small retardance are presented. The measurement method is highly effective for research of vector or tensor physical fields, which are accompanied by birefringence. For example, inner stresses, electrical and magnetic fields, heat flows, birefringence liquid flows et al.
The mutual influence of the spatial and temporal parameters variations has been considered for the optical information processing systems. These parameters general dependence on the system physical units has also been considered. The possibilities to optimize the systems due to the more important parameter improvement at expense of less important one (spatial parameter at expense of temporal one or vice versa) have been estimated, and the possibilities to improve both kinds of the parameters simultaneously have been searched.
The peculiarities of wavefront reconstruction under the condition of simultaneous illumination of the volume holograms by the object and reference beams, have been considered when the reconstructing object beam partially differs from the recording object beam by its phase distribution. A real time interferometry and correlation analysis of initial and final states of the object can be carried out simultaneously under the combined illumination both for volume and plate holograms. However, the case of volume holograms is characterized by bigger efficiency which is caused by the difference of diffraction at volume and plane structures.
The structure and operating principle of a hybrid optoelectronic system is presented. The basic parts of the system are acoustooptic processor and digital signal processor, which executes functions: control, synchronization, and data processing. The construction of optoelectronic system for processings for radioemission from pulsars and algorithms of functioning are discussed.
A whole-field polarimetric method through digital image processing has been developed for mapping the three optical parameters, which determine normalized Jones matrix of an elliptic retarder. The suggested technique conveys measurement data sufficient to describe optical anisotropy in the media exhibiting rotation of birefringence axes along the light path. Particularly, homogeneous or inhomogeneous birefringent gyrotropic objects and initially isotropic transparent samples bearing stress-induced anisotropy can be investigated by use of this technique. Operational principle of the method implies incremental rotation of polarizer and analyzer with the ratio 1:3 over the revolution of the polarizer and collection of 9 intensity images between successive rotation steps. Then thus obtained intensity patterns are digitally processed by use of Fourier analysis. Specifically in this paper we address issues concerning the accuracy of mapping all the three parameters at different values of those. Some ad hoc experiments with test crystalline quartz phase plates are reported. Computer simulations and measurement results are presented and discussed.
Different kinds of acousto-optic imaging systems have been observed from the point of view of their capability to transmit and process information. The major attention have been paid to the system providing image projection. Acousto- optic light projection system represents a kind of light information systems in which two kinds of information are used: basic and auxiliary information. The auxiliary information contains data which are used in order to arrange the basic information in such form that it would require no additional decoding means. When such auxiliary data are used, the signal-to-noise ratio falls because each operation introduce its own noise. Several ways of additional information input have been considered from the point of view of the useful information transmission optimization. In order to perform this consideration, such standard information parameters as information capacity and information transmission capability have been assigned to the system as well as to its separate links. These parameters limitations providing by acousto-optic deflection and modulation units have been estimated. These limitations are connected with the certain contradiction between attempts to increase both information parameters simultaneously. This contradiction is connected with nature of acousto-optic interaction, however it differs from that taking place while optimizing the information parameters of acousto-optic spectrum analyzers. The results of information parameters estimation for the systems we had experimentally performed, have been stated and discussed.
In present time the problem ofcreation ofsystems with an artificial intelligence is most actual. The devices of technical sight are one from making such systems. A method reception of images, preprocessing of images and image analysis concern to these problems. Optoelectronic element base is optimally to use for fi.ilfilment of such algorithms. The selection of necessary methods for preprocessing images is a task ofthis activity. Also circuitry for the optical integral circuit (OIC) needs to be offered. It should realize these methods. Also knowhowfis needed to be offered for such OIC.
The role and place of the spatial light modulators (SLM) in holographic memory devices (HMD) with by-page data storage have been estimated. The conditions under which the SLM characteristics are optimized for the information input into HMD, have been considered. It has been shown that it is not enough to make the demands to the SLM harder but it is necessary that they would not be set too high.
Different kinds of thermal influence on spatial light modulators operation have been considered. The estimation of the resolving power for some media of such kind as well as the possibility to use them in the optical information processes devices has been carried out.
Main characteristics of the Optically Addressed SLMs based on the chalcogenide glass photoconductor--nematic liquid crystal and the a-Si:H--ferroelectric liquid crystal structures, advantages of both types of the SLMs and possible applications are discussed.
Propagation of polarized light in wurtzite-type semiconductive crystals possessing a zero birefringence (or isotropic) point is studied with the Jones calculus methods. The crystal optical phenomena in transparent and absorbing dichroic materials are considered. It is shown that the effect of the linear dichroism cannot be neglected at the isotropic point because it affects strongly the polarization of both the normal light waves and the transmitted light. A technique is sketched which enables one to calculate the characteristics of the narrow-band optical filters based on the CdS crystals. The approach adopted in this work is compared with that of the coupled-wave theory.
Design and principles of the multichannel modulator of light created on the basis of photorefractive crystals Bi12GeO20, Bi12SiO20 are resulted in the work. The high gear characteristics of the modulator are achieved at use of a design of male electrodes. The calculation of distribution of electrical fields and induced difference of phases is conducted depending on a structure of male electrodes and thickness of a crystal plane. The modulation and temporary characteristics of the multichannel modulator of light experimentally are investigated.
The high-accuracy polarimetric technique for testing the retardation and the other parameters of phase retardation plates is described. It is based on the so-called universal null-polarimeter for crystal optical studies and represents an improved version of the method developed earlier by the authors. The influence of optical activity, dichroism and multiple reflection effects on the final data is analyzed. The experimental results on several commercial retardation plates made from quartz and lithium niobate are reported.
The phenomenological description of photoelastic relaxations using the piezocaloric interpretation especially for ferroelectric crystal is proposed. The experimental results for Rochelle Salt crystals confirming this interpretation are given.
The results of researches of pulse fourier holograms recording on the self-developing photopolymer PPC-488 with a photosensitivity in a range (lambda) equals 400 - 500 nm are presented. It is shown, that due to non-stationary energy transfer between recording and scattering beams and, accordingly, the noise holograms amplification essential decreasing of the signal to noise ratio (SNR) has place at relatively high efficiency of Fourier holograms (more than 50%). It has been found, that recording of the noise holograms can be appreciably suppressed by increasing of intensity of reference beam concerning to intensity of object beam. On this way it was possible to improve the SNR for the Fourier holograms of binary phase masks: at a reference to object beams ratio R equals 26 the phase Fourier holograms with efficiency 15% and SNR 20 dB has been recorded.
The optical heterodyne correlator (OHC), in which the functions of overlapping and fast scanning by reference image relatively signal image and light frequency shift between them are realized with hologram lens scanner (HLS) in JFT plane is describe.d The important feature of the collinear heterodyning is non-sensitivity of its output response to any phase distortions of an amplitude spatial filters (ASF). That provides high instrumental accuracy of OHC and wide possibilities for adaptive processing with using controllable ASF and matrix photoreceiver with controllable sensitivity of each element. Presented results of experiments demonstrate high performance of this scheme. Multichannel fiber optical communication between the imaged JFT plane of OHC scheme and elements of radio or acoustic antenna array permits fast and soft beam forming and scanning by computer controlled optical transparencies and HLS.
This paper presents a new approach for the secure integrity verification of driver licenses, passports or other analogue identification documents. The system embeds (detects) the reference number of the identification document with the DCT watermark technology in (from) the owner photo of the identification document holder. During verification the reference number is extracted and compared with the reference number printed in the identification document. The approach combines optical and digital image processing techniques. The detection system must be able to scan an analogue driver license or passport, convert the image of this document into a digital representation and then apply the watermark verification algorithm to check the payload of the embedded watermark. If the payload of the watermark is identical with the printed visual reference number of the issuer, the verification was successful and the passport or driver license has not been modified. This approach constitutes a new class of application for the watermark technology, which was originally targeted for the copyright protection of digital multimedia data. The presented approach substantially increases the security of the analogue identification documents applied in many European countries.
In the case of image coding are containing interpolation methods, a linear methods of component forming usually used. However, taking in account the huge speed increasing of a computer and hardware integration power, of special interest was more complicated interpolation methods, in particular spline interpolation. A spline interpolation is known to be a approximation that performed by spline, which consist of polynomial bounds, where a cub parabola usually used. At this article is to perform image analysis by 5 X 5 aperture, result in count rejection of low-frequence component of image: an one base count per 5 X 5 size fragment. The passed source counts were restoring by spline interpolation methods, then formed counts of high-frequence image component, by subtract from counts of initial image a low-frequence component and their quantization. At the final stage Huffman coding performed to divert of statistical redundancy. Spacious set of experiments with various images showed that source compression factor may be founded into limits of 10 - 70, which for majority test images are superlative source compression factor by JPEG standard applications at the same image quality. Investigated research show that spline approximation allow to improve restored image quality and compression factor to compare with linear interpolation. Encoding program modules has work out for BMP-format files, on the Windows and MS-DOS platforms.
The procedure for identification of a random phase mask in a nonlinear joint transform correlator containing a photosensitive recording material or a spatial light modulator in a frequency domain is studied. The new approach for estimation the intensities of correlation peaks in such type of a nonlinear correlator is proposed. This approach is based on the use of an experimental dependence of the recording medium's diffraction efficiency versus its exposure. The comparative analysis of correlation peaks produced by phase masks and primary test images in nonlinear joint transform correlators containing different photosensitive recording medium in frequency domains is represented. The results of analysis have shown, that the peak intensities produced by phase masks and by primary images are the same in a linear joint transform correlator, but the peak intensity produced by a phase mask in the nonlinear joint transform correlator is much larger than the peak intensity produced by a primary image.
Each acousto-optic device is intended generally for the purposes of information transmission and processing. Different kinds of such devices, however, transmit different kinds of information. Output information originating from acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF) is contained in output light spectrum or wavelength. Amount of the transmitted information depends on different factors; the most important among them are AOTF resolving power by wavelength and the processing rate. The resolving power can be defined according to the following criterion: two adjacent wavelengths are considered to be resolved if their possibility to be non-recognized is less than the value given beforehand (usually determined by the customer of the device). This possibility can be measured if the valley between two peaks corresponding these wavelength is in the certain relationship with the value of noise. Hence, signal- to-noise ratio appears to be the most important factor describing information possibilities of AOTF. From the other hand, the processing rate depends on the temporal aperture of Bragg cell on the basis of which the device have been designed. The calculations of the possible amount of information to be transmitted by AOTF has been carried out both for collinear and noncollinear configurations of the device. The influence of features of slow shear acoustic wave propagation in tellurium dioxide single crystal in AOTF on information transmission through AOTF has been considered and discussed.
In papers it is considered the possibility of the realization of the linear parameter transformers and radio frequency meters with using of the acoustooptic modulators based on the manipulations by the optical phase images of their copies laboratory investigations are carried out for the phase gradient visualization along the direction of the acoustic waves propagation.
The methods of sensibilization of self-processing photopolymer for holographic recording in the spectral range 500 - 700 nm have been developed. Two new compositions PPC- 520 and PPC-650 were developed in a result of change of the initiator system and modification of monomer component in the basis PPC-488. New PPC are offered to manufacture of various holographic elements: gratings, lenses and spatial optical filters for the pattern recognition schemes.
In this paper we describe whole-field polarimetric technique, which exploits principles of null-scheme and extends them to whole-field mapping of the measured parameters. Operational principles of the method and the instrument configuration are presented. As any other null- arrangement, the technique is based on finding a set of azimuth angles for the elements, which comprise the polarimeter, such that the light flux falling on the detector is extinguished. A detailed description of measurement procedure with the peculiarities of whole-field exploitation mode is suggested. Theoretical considerations are supplemented with the measurement examples.
Multispectral thermal imaging considerably facilitates observation and identification of thermal objects. The transition from separate imaging to the complex imaging in various ranges of spectrum raises efficiency of this process. Under the word `complex' authors mean the image formed from the several `primary' images, received in several spectral zones. The variants of multispectral devices design, arising problems and ways for their overcoming are considered in this paper. A number of original units for image primary processing is proposed. It is offered to use a vidicon TV camera and a pyrovidicon IR camera as a base for the complex imaging system. Authors have opinion that application of these cameras is the most expedient at the moment.
The video signal preprocessing unit (processor) for thermovision camera, developed by the authors on the basis of a pyroelectric vidicon, is intended for: calculation of a difference between the `positive' and `negative' frames, obtained in obturation mode; n-divisible accumulation of the resulting frame; non-volatile storage of the received images; images transmission to the computer. These functions are realized by means of following units: video signal digitizer; arithmetic-logical unit; accumulation; display and archive memory units; microcontroller. Processor is developed with Field Programmable Gate Arrays use. Its structure is considered.
Thermovision systems based on the pyroelectric vidicon (PV) are low-cost non-cooled devices for image creation in far infrared range of spectrum. For such systems it is necessary to form the positive pedestal charge to prevent PV from blanking and to decrease electron beam delay. Secondary emission pedestal mode (SEPM) is most frequently used for this purpose. It provides pedestal creation during retrace time of horizontal scanning. This paper is dedicated to examining of the SEPM influence on pyroelectric vidicon focusing and deflection mode changes, analysis results of the influence and finding possible ways to correct them. It is shown that SEPM causes deflection decreasing during retrace raster, performed estimation shows that trace and retrace rasters are considerably different. The trace and retrace rasters matching enables to improve the power parameters of the scanning and to increase target commutation time (sensitivity) and number of active scanning lines (spatial resolution). The methods of the trace and retrace raster matching are discussed. The advantages and shortcomings of these methods are pointed out. An estimation of thermovision system parameters improvement is calculated. The obtained results provide a good basis for designing low- cost portable thermovision systems with improved power parameters, resolution and sensitivity.
Monitoring system intended for purity control of deionized water used in drugs production in pharmaceutics is considered in the paper. It makes possible to check up the content of microparticles which are larger than 0.2 mu in deionized water supply main from up to 30 working places of the process station. Block diagram, the PRM-4 devices and software of monitoring system are described.
Surface finish of component the fuel, hydraulic and oil assemblies and engines define the essential feature required of purity of fluid in operation. In these conditions the fluids may not contains microparticles which size is greater than size of the clearance between friction surfaces. An important parameters that determine the purity of fluids are available quantity of the microparticles of predetermined of sizes in the certain volume of fluid. The content of microparticles in oil products should be in conformity with the relevant standard ISO DIS 4406. Optical sensor for check-up of content of microparticles in light oil products to suit ISO standards requirements is considered in the report.
Spatial inhomogeneity of the phase different in the birefringent plates of YAlO3 and LiNbO3 crystals with the dimensions ranging from 7 X 8 to 20 X 20 mm2 are measured. A considerable eigenwave ellipticity k approximately 0.001 is revealed in the samples doped with neodymium, which can be explained by lowering symmetry of those crystals. The studies for the spatial optical inhomogeneities are performed with the imaging polarimeter which utilizes computer registration and processing of images. The apparatus have been used for the measurement of spatial distribution of the optical anisotropy parameters characterizing several single crystals. The results obtained agree well with the data derived from the automated polarimeter which works according to a single-ray scheme and utilizes usual single-element photodetector.
In this paper we report on the results of experimental investigations of processes of pulse laser reactive deposition and structure formation and characteristics of AlN, AlN:Mn, GaN, GaN:Zn, GaN:Mn, GaN:Cr, MgSiN2:Ti, SrSiN2:Eu thin films which have been condensed from laser erosion plasma into reactive atmosphere (nitrogen).
The optical-digital systems find more and more broad application in scientific researches and productions. In particular the researches of the capillary characteristics of materials with the purpose of development of effective solders to design compounds metal-ceramics execute on special techniques in the high-temperature (700 - 1100 degree(s)C) vacuum installations (3 (DOT) 10-3 P). The specifity of such researchers requires the use of remote methods for determination of the characteristics of materials (factor of surface tension and angle of wetting). The indicated characteristics of materials are determined through geometric images of drops of melts registered and processed by optical-electron and optical-digital systems. The modern optical-digital systems for registration and image processings are created on the basis of photoreceivers or devices with charging connection (CCD-lines, CCD-matrices and CCD-video cameras) and personal computer. Use and development of such digital systems has raised the question on choosing of optical system elements with the goal of optimization of their parameters and increase of accuracy of determination of the objects geometric sizes.
Research possibility of application of optical-digital system, including CCD-camera for the determination of the surface form and geometric parameters of microlenses. It is shown that microlenses have a shape of the cut sphere. Approximate polynomial describing surface of microlens is calculated and main geometric parameters of these optical elements, the curvature radius, diameter and height of microlens are calculated.
In this article we describe an optoelectronic sensor for assessing the level of light petrochemical products in technological tanks at the oil refineries. This sensor employs the multi-element vertical array of discrete micro- optical refractometric transducers. The transducers are made of silica glass and have the conical shape. In the air, each transducer operates as a tiny retro-reflector that optically couple together two multimode optical fibers. The optical coupling in the transducer is due to the internal reflection at the conical surface. The amount of the coupling depends on the refractive index of the surrounding media. In a fluid, the total internal reflection vanishes and the coupling becomes negligibly small. The number of immersed transducers is a measure of the fluid level in the reservoir. Because of the significance of the transducer transmission function, it is evaluated in detail under various combinations of the geometrical parameters of the micro-optical structure and connecting optical fibers. The numerical ray tracing shows that the form of the transmission function can be modified by change of some geometrical parameters of the structure.
The paper presents an approach for performance evaluation and parametric optimization of imaging system design. This approach is based on calculation and minimization of image distortion. It applies the criterion based on minimization of normalized least-square image error. The proposed mathematical apparatus makes possible evaluation of the performance and calculation of optimal parameters that reduces image distortion caused by spatial filtering and noise. The paper illustrates the application of the proposed technique for performance analysis of a scanning system.
The paper represents the approach for residual non- uniformity evaluation after two-points linear non-uniformity correction. The approach takes into consideration parameters of an imaging system, reference source, non-linearity and noise of multi-element photodetector.