21 December 2000 Measurements and calculations of microwave radiance and reflectivity for storm-associated frozen hydrometeors
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During the TEFLUN-B (Texas-Florida under-lights for TRMM) field experiment of August-September, 1998, a number or ER-2 aircraft flights with a host of microwave instruments were conducted over many convective storms, including some hurricanes, in the coastal region of Florida and Texas. These instruments include MIR (Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer), AMPR (Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer), and EDOP (ER-2 Doppler Radar). EDOP is operated at the frequency of 9.7 GHz, while the AMPR and the MIR together give eleven channels of radiometric measurements in the frequency range of 10-340 GHz. The concurrent measurements from these instruments provide unique data sets for studying the details of the microphysics of hydrometeors. Preliminary examination of these data sets shows features that are generally well understood; i.e., radiometric measurements at frequencies <EQ 37 GHz mainly respond to rain, while those at frequencies >= 150 GHz, to ice particles above the freezing level. Model calculations of brightness temperature and radar reflectivity are performed and results compared with these measurements. For simplicity the analysis is limited to the anvil region of the storms were hydrometeors are predominantly frozen. Only one ice particle size distribution is examined in the calculations of brightness temperature and radar reflectivity in this initial study. Estimation of ice water path is made based on the best agreement between the measurements and calculations of brightness temperature and reflectivity. Problems associated with these analyses and measurement accuracy will be discussed.
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James R. Wang, James R. Wang, Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Robert Meneghini, Robert Meneghini, Gerald Heymsfield, Gerald Heymsfield, Will Manning, Will Manning, } "Measurements and calculations of microwave radiance and reflectivity for storm-associated frozen hydrometeors", Proc. SPIE 4152, Microwave Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Environment II, (21 December 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.410608; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.410608

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