A radiative transfer model for a coupled atmosphere-ocean system was developed for satellite remote sensing of costal pollution to estimate water-leaving radiance from polluted sea surfaces. The optical properties of suspended substances in the ocean such as phytoplankton (Skeletonema costatum and Heterosigma akashiwo), detritus, submicron particles, and inorganic particles were measured or estimated. The equation of radiative transfer in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system was solved by using the invariance imbedding method. The water-leaving radiance in clear and Case II waters, turbid waters with soil particles, and red tide waters, were calculated. It was possible to estimate the soil particle concentration of water by using the ratio of the upward radiance at different wavelengths with a high resolution sensor for the land like the Landsat TM. However, estimating the red tide phytoplankton concentration using Landsat TM was difficult, because the water-leaving radiance varies little with phytoplankton concentration, and is affected by assumed amounts of detritus.