31 January 2001 Using alpha-interferon as an adjunctive therapy to reduce the dose of energy required with photodynamic therapy in treating human bladder tumors: cell culture results
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Abstract
Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder has long been known as an aggressive killer. Because of the high degree of progression to muscle invasion and the high rate of occult early metastasis, early radical cystectomy had been the preferred treatment, a highly morbid procedure. Even now, with routine use of continent diversions or oithotopic bladder replacements, most patients would agree that there is still a great deal of morbidity associated with this treatment.
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David Hall, David Hall, Unyime O. Nseyo, Unyime O. Nseyo, Dale Riggs, Dale Riggs, Barbara Jackson, Barbara Jackson, Donald L. Lamm, Donald L. Lamm, } "Using alpha-interferon as an adjunctive therapy to reduce the dose of energy required with photodynamic therapy in treating human bladder tumors: cell culture results", Proc. SPIE 4156, Clinical Lasers and Diagnostics, (31 January 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.413705; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.413705
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