The current level of laser technology development and understanding of the process of laser radiation interaction with materials, attained by the world laser research community, including the scientists from Russian and from the IPLIT RAN, particularly, provides new possibilities of updating the technology of materials processing and diagnostics in machine-building and metallurgy. Several institutes of Russia, primarily the IPLIT RAN, develop and produce practically all basic types of industrial lasers used in materials processing. These lasers provide a basis for development and application of welding, cutting and surface treatment. Alongside with the above-listed traditional technologies of laser materials processing (LMP), a progress has been made in development of a new and promising laser-computer technology of 3D parts rapid prototyping. Besides, the laser-computer methods of non-contact diagnostics of subsurface defects and stressed states are of great interest to machine-building and metallurgy.