22 January 2001 157-nm photomask handling and infrastructure: requirements and feasibility
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Photomask handling is significantly more challenging for 157nm lithography than for any previous generation of optical lithography. First, pellicle materials are not currently available which meet the requirements for 157nm lithography. Polymeric materials used at 193nm and above are not sufficiently transmissive at 157nm, while modified fused silica materials have adequate transmission properties but introduce optical distortion.
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Jerry Cullins, Jerry Cullins, Edward G. Muzio, Edward G. Muzio, } "157-nm photomask handling and infrastructure: requirements and feasibility", Proc. SPIE 4186, 20th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology, (22 January 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.410756; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.410756


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