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22 January 2001 Modeling defect-feature interactions in the presence of aberrations
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Programmed defects about 0.4 ?/NA in size are introduced in strong phase-shifting masks to produce exposure-sensitive printable artifacts for measuring lens aberrations. The programmed defects add interferrometric-like reference electric fields that coherently interact with the side-lobes of aberration sensitive pattern layouts to produce artifacts. The artifacts are separate but adjacent printed defects. The patterns are suitable for rapid reading by automatic wafer inspection equipment and directly indicate the levels of specific Zemike aberrations. High sensitivity to 0.01 X and good orthogonality with 12% confounding are possible for coma and trifoil. Results for even aberrations such as focus, astigmatism and spherical 3rd order are poor for 180° phase defect-probes but warrant further investigation with 90° phase.
© (2001) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Andrew R. Neureuther, Shoji Hotta, and Konstantinos Adam "Modeling defect-feature interactions in the presence of aberrations", Proc. SPIE 4186, 20th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology, (22 January 2001);

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