Bladder cancer remains a serious public health problem in many parts of the world with an estimated 300,000 new cases a year. In the US, there were 53,200 new cases of bladder cancer with 12,200 deaths in 2000. A majority (75%-90%) of these cancers are diagnosed pathologically as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Superficial TCC constitutes 85% of newly diagnosed bladder cancer cases. Superficial bladder cancer includes papillary tumors involving only the mucosa (Ta) or submucosa (T1) and flat carcinoma in suit (CIS). Transurethral resection (TUR) of bladder tumor effectively controls the primary tumors, confirms the superficial or non-muscle invasive nature of the disease, provides cytological and histological tumor characteristics for determining prognostic significance and allows for assessment of the extent of bladder tissue involvement by tumor. Intravesical therapy provides a high concentration of drug in contact with tumor-bearing mucosa for prolonged periods, reduces the likelihood of tumor implantation after resection by destroying viable cancer cells, provides a cytotoxic effect on residual carcinoma, and potentially alters precursor mucosal lesions.