24 April 2001 Application of coherent antistokes Raman scattering (CARS) to imaging mammalian cells: a means for gaining molecular selectivity in multiphoton imaging
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Proceedings Volume 4262, Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences; (2001) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.424571
Event: BiOS 2001 The International Symposium on Biomedical Optics, 2001, San Jose, CA, United States
Abstract
Virtually all laser based microscopy imaging methods involve a single laser, with ultrafast lasers emerging as the enabling tool for a variety of methods. Two-photon fluorescence is a high sensitivity method with selectivity depending on a chromophore that is either added or produced by genetic engineering. While there are fundamental advantages over white light or other fluorescence microscopies, there are unavoidable limitations such as bleaching, photoinduced damage to the cell, and the inability to label some major constituents of the cell, particularly the abundant species. Raman imaging affords chemical selectivity but application is limited due particularly to its low sensitivity and unavoidable fluorescence background. Adding a second laser beam, shifted from the first laser by a molecular vibrational frequency, increases the detected Raman signal by many orders of magnitude and in addition shifts the detected signal to the high energy (blue) side of both lasers, removing fluorescence artifacts. Signal levels sufficient to acquire high signal-to-noise ratio images of 200 by 200 pixels in one minute requires sub-nanojoule pulse energy. A convenient, tunable source of the Stokes-shifted beam is provided by an Optical Parametric Amplifier (OPA), which requires an amplified laser. 250-kHz sources have ample energy and in addition keep the average sample power on the order of 0.1 mW, a level that even sensitive biological systems tolerate at the focal spot diameter of 0.3 micrometers . Long-term viability of mammalian cells has been demonstrated during dozens of scans in a single plane. Two-photon fluorescence provides a useful complimentary data channel that is acquired simultaneously with the Raman image. Several dyes and green fluorescence protein have been used for this purpose. Interpretation of images, acquiring three dimensional images, and identification of cellular features are ongoing activities.
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Gary R. Holtom, Gary R. Holtom, Brian Thrall, Brian Thrall, Thomas Weber, Thomas Weber, Leyun Zhu, Leyun Zhu, Derek Hopkins, Derek Hopkins, Christopher Parkinson, Christopher Parkinson, Steven Colson, Steven Colson, John M. Price, John M. Price, Beek Yoke Chin, Beek Yoke Chin, Augustine Choi, Augustine Choi, Terence Risby, Terence Risby, } "Application of coherent antistokes Raman scattering (CARS) to imaging mammalian cells: a means for gaining molecular selectivity in multiphoton imaging", Proc. SPIE 4262, Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences, (24 April 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.424571; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.424571
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