15 May 2001 Crystal cut dependent H+ and Er3+ doping into lithium niobate and sapphire
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Proceedings Volume 4277, Integrated Optics Devices V; (2001) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.426796
Event: Symposium on Integrated Optics, 2001, San Jose, CA, United States
Abstract
We present the results of our systematic research into moderate temperature diffusion technologies of fabrication of optical waveguides in X- and Z-cuts of lithium niobate, i.e. annealed proton exchange (APE) and diffusion doping of erbium from melts containing erbium salts. Our experiments proved, that the X-cuts always contained much more incorporated dopants than the Z-cuts, indicating thus, that the incorporation mechanisms were not the simple ion- exchange ones. The 'layered pattern' of the X-cuts structure makes the vacant cleavage planes easily accessible for penetration of 'foreign' particles into the lithium niobate structure. That may explain much better readiness of the X- cuts to absorb in substantially higher rate the doping ions. The ion exchange diffusion mechanism in the X-cuts is then strongly accompanied by the interstitial diffusion of H+. To prove this hypotheses we studied the moderate- temperature diffusion into sapphire that is known to be extremely resistant to diffusion of foreign particles, but structure of that, D3d6, is very similar to the structure of lithium niobate. The doping was achieved by immersing the substrate wafers into reaction melt containing small amounts of erbium nitrate. In the 'X-cuts' sapphire there was found as much as 0.15 at percent of erbium, that is the concentration of erbium one order of magnitude higher than in the other cuts. Thus the possibility of localized doping of Er3+ ions into the sapphire single crystal wafers is for the first time demonstrated.
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Jarmila Spirkova-Hradilova, Jarmila Spirkova-Hradilova, Pavla Nekvindova, Pavla Nekvindova, Jiri Vacik, Jiri Vacik, Jarmila Cervena, Jarmila Cervena, Vratislav Perina, Vratislav Perina, Anna Mackova, Anna Mackova, Josef Schroefel, Josef Schroefel, Milos Budnar, Milos Budnar, Alenka Raspet, Alenka Raspet, Benjamin Zorko, Benjamin Zorko, Primoz Pelicon, Primoz Pelicon, } "Crystal cut dependent H+ and Er3+ doping into lithium niobate and sapphire", Proc. SPIE 4277, Integrated Optics Devices V, (15 May 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.426796; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.426796
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