22 December 2000 Transcoding characteristics of Web images
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Transcoding is a technique employed by network proxies to dynamically customize multimedia objects for prevailing network conditions and individual client characteristics. Transcoding can be performed along a number of different axes and the specific transcoding technique used depends on the type of multimedia object. Our goal in this paper is to understand the nature of typical Internet images and their transcoding characteristics. We focus our attention on transcodings intended to customize an image for file size savings. Our results allow the developers of a transcoding proxy server to choose the appropriate transcoding techniques for the important classes of Internet images. We analyze the characteristics of images available on the Web through a representative trace. We show that most GIF images accessed on the Internet are small; about 80% of the GIF images are smaller than 6 KBs. JPEG images are larger than GIF images; about 40% of the JPEG images are larger than 6 KBs. We also establish the characteristics of popular image transcoding operations. We show that for JPEG images, the JPEG compression metric and a transcoding that reduces the spatial geometry are productive transcoding operations (saves at least 50% of the file size for 50% of the images). Our systematic study of image characteristics leads to some surprising results. For example, a naive spatial geometry reduction of GIF images by a factor of 2 along each axis actually causes an increase in the file size compared to the original image for 40% of the images. Thus it is important to understand the characteristics of individual images before choosing the proper transcoding operation.
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Surendar Chandra, Surendar Chandra, Ashish Gehani, Ashish Gehani, Carla Schlatter Ellis, Carla Schlatter Ellis, Amin Vahdat, Amin Vahdat, } "Transcoding characteristics of Web images", Proc. SPIE 4312, Multimedia Computing and Networking 2001, (22 December 2000); doi: 10.1117/12.410904; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.410904

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