1 August 2001 Data hiding in binary text documents
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With the proliferation of digital media such as digital images, digital audio, and digital video, robust digital watermarking and data hiding techniques are needed for copyright protection, copy control, annotation, and authentication. While many techniques have been proposed for digital color and grayscale images, not all of them can be directly applied to binary text images. The difficulty lies in the fact that changing pixel values in a binary document could introduce irregularities that are very visually noticeable. We propose a new method for data hiding in binary text documents by embedding data in the 8-connected boundary of a character. We have identified a fixed set of pairs of five-pixel long boundary patterns for embedding data. One of the patterns in a pair requires deletion of the center foreground pixel, whereas the other requires the addition of a foreground pixel. A unique property of the proposed method is that the two patterns in each pair are dual of each other -- changing the pixel value of one pattern at the center position would result in the other. This property allows easy detection of the embedded data without referring to the original document, and without using any special enforcing techniques for detecting embedded data.
© (2001) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Qian Gang Mei, Edward K. Wong, Nasir D. Memon, "Data hiding in binary text documents", Proc. SPIE 4314, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents III, (1 August 2001); doi: 10.1117/12.435420; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.435420

Binary data

Data hiding

Digital watermarking


Image processing


Computer programming

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